Poverty and Equity


Carter J. Brandon

Carter Brandon is the World Bank’s Global Lead Economist for Environment and Natural Resources, with primary interests in the linkages between the environment, welfare and growth.


Omar S. Arias Diaz

Omar Arias is the Practice Lead Economist of the Social Protection and Labor Global Practice and Global Lead for skills at the World Bank.


Maitreyi Das

Maitreyi Bordia Das is the World Bank's Global Lead for Social Inclusion. Based in Washington DC, she works on issues of inequality and exclusion and on the design and implementation of social policy and programs.

Case study

How to Use Community Conditional Cash Transfers and Inter-Village Competition for Rural Development, South Korea (1970–1979)

South Korea experienced a period of rapid industrialization and economic growth in 1960-70s  when the Economic Planning Board had made a series of large-scale investments in the industrial sector and the urban areas that hosted industries. This created serious income inequality between urban and rural areas, leading to an exodus from the rural areas as villagers left to seek employment in urban areas. The unprecedented scale and chaotic nature of rural-urban migration placed a severe administrative burden on urban centers, Seoul in particular, and even threatened political and social unrest. (Brandt 1982)