Yolande Coombes has more than 20 years of experience in public health, behavior change and evaluation. She gained her PhD in Public Health from the University of London. She has held academic positions at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and College of Medicine in Malawi. As a consultant she has worked on topics on a number of communicable and non-communicable diseases. She has been working with the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank since 2007 focusing on WSP’s sanitation.
Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) utilizes emotions, participatory rural appraisals (PRAs), and visual tools to enable communities to analyze their sanitation conditions, thereby internalizing the reasons to initiate behavior change, changing social norms and increasing the chances that the behavior change will be sustained. It is used as part of the Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Project.
FOAM is a social cognition behavior change framework that can be used to guide and monitor behavior change in handwashing, sanitation, or other behaviors. It was originally developed in 2007 as part of the Bank’s Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project, a behavior change program in four countries. The FOAM framework is fundamentally about understanding factors that influence an individual’s opportunity, ability and motivation to perform a particular behavior. Though FOAM was developed for handwashing, it can be adapted to understand other behaviors such as sanitation (SaniFOAM). FOAM allows the project team to formulate a theory of change for the behavior change process. It allows teams to make explicit hypotheses about what it will take to change a given behavior among a given population.