How did Indonesia provide 25 million rural people with access to improved sanitation in the last decade? Was its paradigm shift—from subsidizing the purchase of latrines to changing people’s behavior—responsible for its success? This case study tracks how the government and development partners introduced community-led total sanitation and developed total sanitation and sanitation marketing.
FOAM is a social cognition behavior change framework that can be used to guide and monitor behavior change in handwashing, sanitation, or other behaviors. It was originally developed in 2007 as part of the Bank’s Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project, a behavior change program in four countries. The FOAM framework is fundamentally about understanding factors that influence an individual’s opportunity, ability and motivation to perform a particular behavior. Though FOAM was developed for handwashing, it can be adapted to understand other behaviors such as sanitation (SaniFOAM). FOAM allows the project team to formulate a theory of change for the behavior change process. It allows teams to make explicit hypotheses about what it will take to change a given behavior among a given population.
Sanitation Marketing employs the “Four Ps” —product, price, place, and promotion—to scale up the demand and supply for improved sanitation, particularly among the poor. The “Four 4ps” have proven themselves in terms of enabling scale and producing results in commercial sector as well as in social marketing applications such as in health.