Delivery Challenges

Delivery Challenge: Opposition or lack of consensus

Inability to find a solution that is acceptable to all major stakeholders, or opposition from stakeholder groups or individuals to a proposed intervention

Interactive

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Percentage of Projects with Opposition or lack of consensus

  • Less than 25%
  • 25 - 50%
  • 50 - 75%
  • More than 75%

Any information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the Global Delivery Initiative, any judgment or endorsement on the status of any territory.

Case study
In 2013, the Republic of Korea launched its open data policy as a framework to improve the transparency and quality of public services through the use of open data. The Open Data Strategy Council was responsible for coordinating and monitoring the open data performance of participating government agencies and public organizations. To implement the government’s open data agenda, the council had to overcome barriers to coordination and engagement, such as bureaucratic resistance and interagency disputes. At the time, many government officials had a limited understanding of the open data policy and were not willing to open their agencies’ data to citizens and businesses. To overcome this resistance, the government used annual performance evaluations to motivate government agencies and public...
Case study
This case study from the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) examines the Preparing Outer Islands for Sustainable Energy Development Project (POISED) and its pioneering efforts to bring solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery-diesel hybrid energy systems to key outer island locations of Maldives and improve the efficiency of power generation. Supported by the CIF Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program in Low Income Countries (SREP) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the POISED project is a successful proof of concept for solar photovoltaics (PV) and battery storage in the country. Through POISED, the solar-PV- battery diesel hybrid energy systems achieved fuel savings of up to 28 percent compared to diesel-only generator sets. It makes the case that investing in renewable energy is financially sound...
Case study
The Republic of Korea has long had a notoriously high number of pedestrian fatalities from road crashes. Part of the reason was high speed limits. The speed limit on national highways of four lanes or more was 80 kilometers per hour— even in areas where highways passed through towns or villages. After launching a plan to drastically reduce road deaths in 2015, Korea held a public contest for road safety ideas. The winning idea—dubbed “the village zone”—proposed reducing speed limits and putting in place special road signs and markings on sections of high-speed roads near population centers.  The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport adopted the idea and delegated the project to the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), a government research institute. Implementing village zones—...
Case study
In the 1990s, Seoul suffered from transportation problems such as traffic congestion, poor bus services, and uncoordinated transit systems. To address those issues, newly elected mayor Myung Bak Lee launched a large-scale public transportation reform program in 2004. The reforms included a new smart card run by a public-private partnership, a quasi-public transit management system, and a set of integrated distance-based fares. To manage conflicts among stakeholders such as bus and railway companies, government agencies, and civil society groups, reformers created a citizens committee that represented all parties. Seoul’s transportation reforms benefited both passengers and carriers. Bus and transit ridership increased, citizens reported higher levels of service and satisfaction, and...
Case study
Kenya has long grappled with issues of improving public service delivery. In 2012, citizens could wait in queues for up to eight hours just to submit the documents required to apply for a driver’s license. To receive faster service, some citizens resorted to paying bribes. In 2013, to improve service delivery, the Ministry of Devolution and Planning launched Huduma Kenya, a one-stop shop that delivered multiple public services from one central location. The goal was to establish at least one of those one-stop shops in each of Kenya’s 47 counties within five years. During implementation, the ministry faced several challenges, including budgetary constraints, institutional resistance from other ministries and agencies, and coordination challenges with national and local government...
Case study
In the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea introduced a system of paid maternity and parental leave to increase female labor force participation and fertility rates by mitigating hardships for female workers after childbirth. The source of financial support in the process of introducing the system lacked consensus, however. The Ministry of Labor consulted with stakeholders and encouraged political parties to agree to adopt the paid leave system. Key stakeholders and political parties opposed the paid leave system or preferred health insurance to employment insurance as a funding source. Finally, acknowledging practical barriers to those avenues, they agreed to employment insurance as a primary funding mechanism. Many mothers, but very few fathers, used the system. Incentivizing paternal...
Case study
In 2012, Peru gave legal power to Indigenous communities to co-manage a protected natural area in their ancestral homeland, Tuntanain Communal Reserve. The policy aimed to enable the community to participate in conservation activities and benefit from sustainable economic development. Unfortunately, the reality on the ground did not meet the aspirations of the law. There was little engagement by the local population and inadequate resources provided by the state. Indigenous representation suffered from organizational and technical weaknesses. In 2016, the United Nations Development Programme and the Peruvian Authority of Protected Natural Areas launched the capacity building component of the Ecosystems-based Adaptation program that increased local participation in managing the reserve....
Case study
In 2014-15 the government of Kazakhstan embarked on a new undertaking: to create a regional business development map with the aim of providing comprehensive information on development opportunities for entrepreneurship and expanding support for entrepreneurs. The project faced numerous delivery challenges during implementation, including lack of available data and skilled human resources, as well opposition from government and businesses, which had to be carefully navigated. This case study examines the implementation process of the project, the approach of the Kazakhstani government to support businesses, and the results of these efforts. The regional business development map answers four main questions related to current business and potential entrepreneurship: What is produced in the...
Case study
Following two gas explosions in 1995 that resulted from poor management of information on underground pipes, the Republic of Korea accelerated its efforts to update and integrate spatial data, such as underground maps. The Ministry of Construction and Transportation led the integration initiative, but the ministry faced a lack of cooperation from counterpart ministries and agencies. It was often at a stalemate with its main counterpart, the Ministry of Home Affairs: the two ministries could not reach a consensus over how land-related information should be collected, managed, and shared. This case study describes how the land ministry overcame these challenges by seeking mediation or windows of opportunity through higher bureaucratic channels, and by leveraging its experience and resources...
Case study
Across The Gambia, many people lack access to basic financial services that would allow them to borrow and save money. The problem is particularly prevalent in rural areas, where very few banks have branches, and as a result, most rural dwellers—particularly women—remain unbanked. Without savings or access to credit, families struggle to grow their income and improve their wellbeing. To address the problem, Irish Aid, Ireland’s international development aid organization, funded Improving Access to Pro-Poor Financial Services in Sierra Leone and The Gambia, a project launched in 2015 by the National Association of Cooperative Credit Unions of The Gambia (NACCUG) (Dalzell and O’Sullivan 2018). The initiative aimed to provide financial services to poor rural communities by helping credit...
Case study
Proper waste disposal is difficult, especially when no one wants disposal facilities in his or her neighborhood. A sound waste management plan has to consider both environmental sustainability and the wishes of the local community. In Seoul’s case, it took two decades of efforts to develop consensus on building and operating incinerators in the Republic of Korea’s capital city to dispose of residents’ waste. City officials held hundreds of open discussions to provide information on waste disposal and to listen to local residents’ concerns. Incorporating citizens’ demands, the government introduced stringent standards for pollutant emissions and related control systems, and it provided compensation to residents in the affected residential areas. At the same time that it built incinerators...
Case study
This case study is one of the five winning entries from the 2019 GDI Case Study Competition. Prior to 2008, the public service delivery mechanism in Pakistan was outdated and inefficient because of a lack of digitization and process automation. The situation was especially critical in Punjab, the most populous province in the country, where reforming the system required changing a culture of inefficiency and rent seeking. In 2008, concerns about petty corruption led one district in Punjab to pilot the Citizen Feedback Monitoring Program (CFMP) to address the monitoring and evaluation challenge. In 2012, the Punjab Information Technology Board implemented the program across 36 districts in Punjab and 25 different public services. Development Challenge: Improving government service delivery...
Case study
The soaring prevalence of obesity, and the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) associated with it, is increasingly becoming one of the main public health threats in the world. Once considered an ailment of the rich, overweight and obesity are no longer a health concern only in wealthy countries.  Their prevalence continues to grow in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), and is pervasive even in countries where undernutrition persists.  To face this challenge, many countries have designed and implemented comprehensive strategies and standalone policies to curb the epidemic. However, most documentation around the process to design and implement these policies come from high-income countries, and only recently have there been some efforts aimed at understanding the process and...
Case study
This case study examines the emergence of the Saemaul Undong Women's Association in the Republic of Korea from 1972 to 1979. This initiative was carried out as part of the Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), a nationwide community development project. The Saemaul Undong combined top-down aspects, in that it was mandated and directed by the central govenerment, and bottom-up aspects, in that villages had broad leeway in terms of the projects that they took on at the local level. The same was true for the Saemaul Women's Associations. One important aspect of the Saemaul Undong was its encouragement of women’s leadership in village projects. In 1973, the Saemaul Women’s Association was established as a branch organization of the Saemaul Undong. After the establishment of the SWA, each...
Case study
Reducing water losses within a waterworks system, particularly in the face of water shortage problems, is an important issue faced by modern water providers. Since the early 2000s, the government of the Republic of Korea has worked to reduce the water leakage in local waterworks facilities and, as a result, to enhance the portion of water supplied to customers and increase revenue. This case study examines the reasons for Korea’s establishment of a nationwide policy to reduce waterworks leakage and the difficulties confronted while implementing the policy. To download and read this case study on reducing losses of water from waterworks in the Republic of Korea, written by Cheol Han Kim, click here.  To read a condensed delivery note on this topic, prepared by Yoon Jung Lee, click here. ...
Case study
To download and read this case study on the Republic of Korea's real-name financial transaction system (RNFTS), written by Wonhyuk Lim, click here.   To read a condensed delivery note on the RNFTS, prepared by Christine H. Joo, click here. A real-name financial transaction system (RNFTS) requires that the real name of an individual or a legal entity be used in financial transactions, subject to verification by some form of identification. By enhancing the integrity and transparency of financial transactions, RNFTS aims to address the development challenge of reducing corruption and promoting fair taxation. Introducing RNFTS entails basically two types of delivery challenges: technical and political economy. The technical challenge has to do with setting up data infrastructure and dealing...
Case study
In 2012, the Zambian Revenue Authority (ZRA) put together a project team to guide the development and delivery of a new electronic tax administration system, called TaxOnline, to replace an inefficient, fragmented system that relied on processing tax registrations, returns, and payments by hand, using paper forms. The revenue authority had contracted with Tata Consultancy Services, a private vendor, to develop a software system, which adapted an e-tax model built for Uganda to the Zambian system. The project team was responsible for creating blueprints to guide the developers’ work, testing the system, training internal staff and educating taxpayers, and encouraging people to embrace the new system.   Development Challenge: The primary purpose of TaxOnline was to increase the efficiency...
Practitioner
Tristan Dreisbach is a public policy consultant. Since 2014, he has worked with Innovations for Successful Societies, a research center at Princeton University. He also conducted health policy research in South Asia with Harvard University's Global Health Delivery Project. Tristan spent two years as a journalist based in Tunisia and was managing editor of Tunisia Live. Prior to that, he studied statebuilding and peacebuilding in transitioning states at New York University’s Center on International Cooperation. Tristan has an MA in Politics from New York University and did his undergraduate work at the University of Michigan.
Practitioner
Cheol Han Kim is a general manager at K-water, a government-owned company which is in charge of water resources management in Korea (South). He joined the company in 1994 and worked in various water business departments performing waterworks management and service jobs in the early stages of his career. Most of his experience, nearly 20 years in total, is concentrated on human resources management such as recruitment, staffing, performance appraisal, and human resources development. Although Kim has spent most of his career in the areas of HR management and development, he has maintained a constant interest in water related business activities and operation. In 2016, he wrote a book titled Waterworks Leakage Management which was published to be used as education material for international...
Practitioner
Wonhyuk Lim is Associate Dean, Office of Development Research and International Cooperation, at the KDI School of Public Policy and Management. Since he joined KDI in 1996, his research has focused on state-owned enterprises and family-based business groups (chaebol). He has also written extensively on development issues, in conjunction with policy consultation projects under Korea’s Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP). After the 2002 Presidential Election in Korea, he worked for the Presidential Transition Committee and the Presidential Committee on Northeast Asia and helped to set policy directions for the restructuring of the electricity and gas sector and for Northeast Asian energy cooperation. Dr. Lim was at Brookings as a CNAPS Fellow in 2005-06. After returning to KDI in 2007, he...